Reddy, S., "Small SI Engine Evaporative Emission Control," SAE Technical Paper 2012-32-0039, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-32-0039.
New regulations require small gasoline engine evaporative diurnal emission control. In the past, it was not possible to design a proper evaporative emission control system (it was mostly trial and error design). In this study, a mathematical model was developed for estimating activated carbon canister size and nomographs were developed for estimating canister purge air requirements and diurnal bleed emissions. The model and the nomographs can be used to design an evaporative emission control system for any SI engine fuel system.