Okazaki, A., "Development of Electromagnetic Valve in ICE," SAE Technical Paper 2012-32-0058, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-32-0058.
This paper is describes the proposal of continuous variable valve timing and lift mechanism by the electromagnetic valve applying the solenoid. This continuous valve timing and timing mechanism is very concise. Authors manufactured test unit. This test unit is driven by PWM DUTY control. In the experiment, freely valve timing and fast response was obtained. In addition, the magnetic circuit of the solenoid, to hold the valve at the time when the maximum lift and seating has been shown.