Tojo, T., Yoshida, K., Iijima, A., Shoji, H. et al., "Analysis of the Effects of a Higher Compression Ratio on HCCI Combustion Characteristics using In-cylinder Visualization and Spectroscopic Measurement," SAE Technical Paper 2012-32-0078, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-32-0078.
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion experiments were conducted in this study using a single-cylinder test engine fitted with a sapphire observation window to facilitate visualization of the entire cylinder bore area. In addition to in-cylinder visualization of combustion, spectroscopic measurements were made of light emission and absorption in the combustion chamber to investigate autoignition behavior in detail. Engine firing experiments were conducted to visualize HCCI combustion over a wide range of compression ratios from 12:1 to 22:1. The results showed that increasing the compression ratio advanced the ignition timing and increased the maximum pressure rise rate, making it necessary to moderate combustion. It was also found that autoignition can be induced even in a mixture lean enough to cause misfiring by raising the intake air temperature so as to advance the overall combustion process.