Bellato, N., Alegre, G., Di Meo, A., Moura, T. et al., "Numerical and Experimental Methodologies to Predict Characteristics of BioFuel Blend on PFI Injector," SAE Technical Paper 2012-36-0163, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-36-0163.
This paper intends to describe spray predictions using CFD technologies for spray formation and evolution on fuel blend. Spray formation was simulated in ANSYS CFX using a Lagrangian model. The primary breakup model used in this study is a variation of the well-known BLOB method. The Cascade Atomization Breakup (CAB) and Modified Cascade Atomization Breakup (MCAB) models for secondary breakup were used. Simulations using different Rosin Rammler distributions were carried out. N-Heptane was used as reference fuel for experimental tests. A high degree of consistency between experimental data and numerical analysis for spray propagation characteristics was found. The methodology has been developed on Heptanes, aiming to extend the methodology to other fuels, i.e. ethanol.