Fuel Economy and CO 2 Emission - A Comparison between Test Procedures and Driving Cycles

Paper #:
  • 2012-36-0479

  • 2012-10-02
de Carvalho, R., Villela, A., and Botero, S., "Fuel Economy and CO2 Emission - A Comparison between Test Procedures and Driving Cycles," SAE Technical Paper 2012-36-0479, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-36-0479.
The growing humanity concern about harmful effects of global warming in consequence of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission has been translated on CO₂ emission reduction targets for the next years in many countries. These targets and regulations for exhaust gas pollutants with local effects have led to the introduction of new vehicular technologies as gasoline direct injection or hybrid vehicles, for instance. New fuel developments, including alternative ones, have already been an important contribution.In the United States, up to 2016, all manufacturers shall accomplish with the average production target of 34.1 mpg, becoming 49.6 mpg in 2025. In Europe, the 2015 target is 130 g/km of CO₂ average emission by each manufacturer production and reduced for 95 g/km in 2020. Japan, China, India and other countries have their own limits defined for the next years too.In Brazil, the national labeling program informs the energetic efficiency level of each participant model and a classification of them but do not establish targets for CO₂ emission mitigation. Particularly, a very detailed discussion must take place regarding ethanol participation on the fuel matrix.However, a comparison between contributions of each country target is not direct, since different measurement procedures and driving cycles are adopted. The USA applies 5 cycles to obtain fuel economy, in Europe is used the NEDC cycle and Japan has the JC08, all of them looking for simulation of each local traffic condition. In Brazil the FTP-75 for urban path and HWFET for highway path are used, both coming from USA procedures.This work presents an overview of main driving cycles in the world assessing their characteristics, main available vehicular technologies in each market and proposals of correlation between the North American, also adopted in Brazil and the European procedures, compared to test results performed in the Petrobras Research Center (CENPES).
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