de Melo, T., Machado, G., de Oliveira Carvalho, L., Belchior, C. et al., "In Cylinder Pressure Curve and Combustion Parameters Variability with Ethanol Addition," SAE Technical Paper 2012-36-0486, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-36-0486.
An experimental investigation was performed on an engine dynamometer to study in cylinder pressure curve and combustion parameters variability with ethanol addition. It was used a Flex-Fuel engine, 1.4 L, 4 cylinders, with a programmable engine control unit to optimize the calibration for different blends of Brazilian gasoline and hydrous ethanol. Engine was calibrated for maximum break torque limited by knocking. In-cylinder pressure was measured by using a pressure sensor installed on the spark plug and analyzed by a combustion data system. Combustion duration, mass fraction burned, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and others were calculated based on in-cylinder pressure curve data. The combustion variability was analyzed from 300 recorded engine cycle for each operating condition. Results for some operating conditions indicated that ethanol addition can reduce combustion variability on a non linear pattern.