Lee, J., Kwon, S., Lim, Y., Chon, M. et al., "Effect of Air-Conditioning on Driving Range of Electric Vehicle for Various Driving Modes," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0040, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0040.
Under the present effort to decrease of air pollution, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are appeared and developed. EVs are running by using electrical energy resource by supporting of battery packs. The effect of air-conditioning has proven to be a serious problem to the point of battery depleting. Thus in the present study, effects of air conditioning (i.e., cooling and heating) on driving range were studied for various driving modes including UDDS, HWFET, and NEDC. The result shows that EV energy efficiency is opposing the usual trend of internal combustion engine vehicle's fuel consumption in highway driving mode than urban driving mode. In highway mode, EV energy efficiency and driving range also decease than urban driving mode. This status was influenced on motor characteristic which torque decrease in high speed rotating conditions and highway driving mode consist of constant speed velocity so it couldn't use the regenerative braking system effectively. In general, air conditioning (i.e., cooling and heating) causes around about 33% average decrease in driving range.