Hyncik, L., Cechova, H., Kovar, L., and Blaha, P., "On Scaling Virtual Human Models," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0074, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0074.
The paper contributes to the development of virtual biomechanical human models as a support for design and optimization of both passive and active safety systems used in various modes of transportation. The paper shows the scaling methodology as simply as possible to creating models based on a reference model regarding anthropology and flexibility.The paper describes the methodology for the scaling of hybrid human models based on a multi-body structure carrying deformable parts. The idea is to have a reference model and to create other models automatically based on the least possible number of parameters. The developed method takes into account the height, age, mass and flexibility of joints. The scaling process starts by scaling the reference model to the target height for given age (including correct height for each major segment of the human body) based on the available anthropometrical data. The scaling coefficient for each segment is also used to scale the segment mass. Secondly, the model mass is balanced to the target mass. Finally, the flexibility of all major joints is updated concerning the target age and available data.