Natarajan, S., Abraham, M., Rajesh, M., Subash, G. et al., "DelHy 3W - Hydrogen Fuelled Hy-Alfa Three Wheeler," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0224, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0224.
The main objective of the project is to develop the hydrogen-fuelled vehicles for transport application. Exhaustive lab tests on engine & vehicle was done to access the hydrogen (H₂) behavior at varying operating conditions. Fifteen such hydrogen-fuelled vehicles were developed by Mahindra with integration of the optimized engine, fuel storage system, fuelling system and safety features to demonstrate these hydrogen vehicles. These vehicles are refueled at a dedicated hydrogen-refueling facility. Detailed calibration was done with hydrogen for meeting the performance and emissions characteristics of the engine. In this experimental investigation Electronic Control Unit (ECU)-based timed manifold injection system was developed. Hydrogen is injected before the intake manifold and the quantity of hydrogen injection is depending on the load, speed and operating conditions. Hydrogen safety strategies/systems including hydrogen leak sensors, solenoid cutoff valves, flashback arrestor, emergency shutoff switch are used to ensure the safety of the on-board passengers. Carbon-based exhaust gases such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon dioxide (CO₂), Hydrocarbon (HC) was observed to be very negligible quantity in the exhaust gas (Due to partial burning of lube oil). Only ultra-low emissions of Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX) are observed in the exhaust. The performance drop compared to gasoline at full load is ~ 25% which is due to lean burn operation of hydrogen (equivalence ratio 0.6). The driveability of these vehicles is in similar magnitude as of gasoline.