Younkins, M., Wooldridge, M., and Boyer, B., "Direct In-cylinder Injection of Water into a PI Hydrogen Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0227, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0227.
Injecting liquid water into a fuel/air charge is a means to reduce NOx emissions. Such strategies are particularly important to hydrogen internal combustion engines, as engine performance (e.g., maximum load) can be limited by regulatory limits on NOx. Experiments were conducted in this study to quantify the effects of direct injection of water into the combustion chamber of a port-fueled, hydrogen IC engine. The effects of DI water injection on NOx emissions, load, and engine efficiency were determined for a broad range of water injection timing. The amount of water injected was varied, and the results were compared with baseline data where no water injection was used. Water injection was a very effective means to reduce NOx emissions. Direct injection of water into the cylinder reduced NOx emissions by 95% with an 8% fuel consumption penalty, and NOx emissions were reduced by 85% without any fuel consumption penalty.