Apfelbeck, R. and Barthel, F., "Heating Comfort and Range Perfectly Combined - Heating Systems for Vehicles with Alternative Drive System. Prospects and Challenges of Biofuel-Operated Water and Air Heaters," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0240, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0240.
The demand for reduction in CO2 emissions has led to an increase in electrification of the power train - covering the span from hybrid vehicles to purely battery driven vehicles. The resulting deficit in heat dissipation from the engine calls for a decoupling of the heating of the passenger compartment from the engine waste heat. As a consequence, customized independent heating systems for each particular type of vehicle are required. Both electric and fuel-operated heating systems, guarantee optimally combined a rapid and efficient heating of the passenger compartment.This article demonstrates in general possible heating concepts with the main focus on the heating of the compartment of passenger cars with electric power trains and rates the concepts in dependency of its heating power and the heat deficit due to ambient conditions.Afterwards it is described in detail how to heat a vehicle with electric drive with a fuel-operated heater. Therefore all important demands will be demonstrated. Based on the heat deficit of the test vehicle an adequate fuel (ethanol) operated heater was installed. Different studies were carried out, started with the heat-up curve in static condition and during defined driving cycle. This is followed by exhaust emissions and CO2 measurements to have an overview about the environmental impact and to compare the well-to-wheel efficiency with pure electric heating concepts. To have a full view on the technology, the acoustical influence of the fuel-operated heater of the electric vehicle were measured.