Adibi Asl, H., Saeedi, M., Fraser, R., Goossens, P. et al., "Mean Value Engine Model Including Spark Timing for Powertrain Control Application," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0247, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0247.
Mean value engine models (MVEMs) are intermediate-level internal combustion (IC) engine models which include more physical details than simplistic linear transfer function models, but significantly fewer details than large complex cylinder-by-cylinder models . The MVEM is well-known as a suitable plant model for model-based control applications. The combinations of physics-based component models, which allow the physical parameter effects to be evaluated and controlled, and look-up table models, with fast response, make the MVEM suitable for control applications.A mean value engine model based on mathematical and parametric equations has recently been developed in the new MapleSim software. The model consists of three main components: the throttle body, the manifold, and the engine. The model is developed in the MapleSim environment which takes advantages from both Maple's powerful symbolic mathematical tool and Modelica's modern equation-based language. Moreover, the simulation results of mass flow rate and manifold pressure are validated with experimental data.The proposed MVEM is integrated along with automatic transmission and vehicle longitudinal dynamics through acausal connections to show the application of the model in automotive powertrain control.