Forthcoming transportation carbon dioxide and environment emission regulations favor solutions with the lowest cost of ownership in the open market. Light duty vehicles and especially those used in urban areas benefit the most from increasing electrification, but medium and heavy duty vehicles - including truck, marine, rail and aircraft - have high continuous power requirements that benefit little from electrification until energy storage costs drop significantly. This paper explores energy storage costs whose alternatives will be weighed against increasing payload fraction costs. A conceptual solution is presented that provides low cost of ownership: an engine that operates as a spark-ignited two stroke engine with compounding and light electrification. This engine (named BETE-Max) has a high thermal efficiency across its operating range and is able to meet tailpipe emissions standards with low aftertreatment costs using known technology.