Vythilingam, K., Lakshminarasimhan, V., and Ramesh, A., "Reduction of Cycle-by-Cycle Variations and Extension of Lean Limit of Operation in a Small Single Cylinder Gasoline Engine through Valve Timing Changes," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0325, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-0325.
Small gasoline four stroke engines used in motorcycle applications run mostly at part load conditions. Here fuel economy and good drivability are the major requirements. In this work, a single cylinder, four stroke, 2 valve gasoline motorcycle engine in which part load performance needs to be improved was taken for investigation. Various factors affecting part load performance were investigated and it was found that high exhaust gas dilution was the cause of high cycle by cycle variations in this engine. Commercial software was used in order to predict exhaust gas dilution levels. Based on the simulation, a set of parameters that lead to low exhaust gas dilution were arrived at. These were implemented and tested on the engine and part load performance characteristics such as combustion stability, brake specific fuel consumption and torque output were found to be improved.