Kamau, H., "MAGLEV Driveline for Wheeled Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles," SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 2(1):49-60, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0473.
VBD Automotive Technologies have developed a MAGLEV driveleine for wheeled fuel cell powered vehicles. The driveline known as the “Magnetic Hubless Wheel Drive” (MHWD), essentially allows for the elimination of the high torque output requirement for wheeled vehicles which currently derive their traction/driving force from the torque applied at the wheel hub to overcome the wheel radius.The frictionless Magnetic Hubless Wheel Drive converts the electric current, from the fuel cell power plant, at the wheel circumference and applies the MAGLEV traction force directly on the inside face of the rotating magnetized road wheel eliminating the need for a wheel hub and substantially reducing mechanical losses inherent in a convectional driveline.The elimination of a mechanical link from the power plant of the vehicle to the traction wheel allows for new performance and safety enhancing features to be built into the vehicle e.g. variable wheelbase and wheel track for city traffic maneuverability and comfortable highway cruising in a small economical vehicle.The description of the MHWD deals with the driveline operating system and mechanical retention and control of the hubless MAGLEV wheels when the vehicle is levitated marginally to reduce friction from the inside face of the traction wheel.This technology is ideally suited to fuel cell powered vehicles which despite major advances in fuel cell stack power densities, require ultra efficient and innovative drivelines that enhance the vehicle's range and power output.“The Safari” concept car designed by VBD Automotive Technologies is featured with the MHWD installed.