Lee, B., Boston, D., Wang, Q., Augenbroe, G. et al., "The Integrated Electric Lifestyle: The Economic and Environmental Benefits of an Efficient Home-Vehicle System," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0495, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0495.
In recent years, the residential and transportation sectors have made significant strides in reducing energy consumption, mainly by focusing efforts on low-hanging fruit in each sector independently. This independent viewpoint has been successful in the past because the user needs met and resources consumed in each sector have been clearly distinct. However, the trend towards vehicle electrification has blurred the boundary between the sectors. With both the home and vehicle now relying upon the same energy source, interactions between the systems can no longer be neglected. For example, when tiered utility pricing schemes are considered, the energy consumption of each system affects the cost of the other.In this paper, the authors present an integrated Home-Vehicle Simulation Model (HVSM), allowing the designer to take a holistic view. Amongst other possibilities, this model allows a designer to evaluate the economic and environmental impacts of multiple retrofit alternatives, whether they concern modifications to the home and its appliances, the vehicle, or any combination. A case study is presented which investigates the economic and environmental benefits which could be obtained from a set of potential retrofit actions. These actions reflect the integrated nature of the system and include: adding Photo-Voltaic panels, introducing an electric vehicle, and updating home appliances with intelligent control strategies. Through the consideration of both systems jointly, it is shown that significant reductions in total energy consumption, total utility cost, and total CO₂ emissions can be realized.