Molteni, G., "Advanced Reinforced Materials for Engine and Vehicle Efficiency," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0649, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0649.
New regulations are challenging the automotive industry to find technology solutions to meet new emissions and fuel economy standards. Engine downsizing and power boosting technologies, hybrid and electrical powertrain, overall vehicle downsize, lightweight structural materials and, fuel cells technology are demanding new materials to meet the new level of end-use performance, bring measurable benefits on "light weight," and provide design solutions that will lead to lower total system cost. APF are one the enablers for lightweight materials hybridization and how a holistic consideration of materials, production processes and methods with regard to costs, time and quality is therefore necessary. These products can be used to help reduce weight in target applications, to improve performance and vehicle efficiency, thus contributing to help the industry to meet higher demand to lower CO₂ emission thru better fuel economy. As the industry works on improving efficiency there is significant effort to reduce and minimize the amount of energy losses from the engine driveline and from the vehicle which includes another 5% of fuel efficiency drain from rolling resistance.