Li, L., Zhao, Y., and Shen, G., "Hybrid III 50th Dummy Ankle Performance Study and Proposed Design Modification," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0664, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0664.
The Hybrid III 50th male dummy is used globally in vehicle safety for measuring the damage index of dummy components. This paper focuses on the dummy's ankle structures which have a great effect on its tibia index (TI). It is found that the ankle shaft can be damaged during the regular EURO and China NCAP  front offset deformable barrier (ODB) test, which affects the accuracy of TI and the corresponding evaluation score. This paper studies the ankle structure and the component material properties and proposes a design modification to prevent damage to the ankle shaft.