He, Y. and Ren, J., "A Comparative Study of Car-Trailer Dynamics Models," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 6(1):177-186, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0695.
The paper examines typical vehicle dynamics models used for the design of car-trailer active safety systems, including active trailer braking and steering. A linear 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF), a nonlinear 4 DOF and a nonlinear 6 DOF car-trailer model are generated. Then, these models are compared with a car-trailer model developed with the commercial software package, CarSim. The benchmark investigation of the car-trailer models is carried out through examining numerical simulation results obtained in two emulated tests, i.e., a single lane-change and a Fishhook maneuver. In the vehicle modeling, a mathematical model of a tire with flexible sidewalls is included to account for transient tire forces. Steady-state aerodynamic forces are included in these models. The deviation of the model dynamic responses, e.g., the variation of the articulation angle between the car and trailer, is discussed. With the benchmark investigation, the car-trailer models in terms of fidelity, complexity, and applicability for active safety system design are addressed.