Patalak, J., Gideon, T., and Melvin, J., "Examination of a Properly Restrained Motorsport Occupant," SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety 1(2):261-277, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0804.
Throughout the first decade of the twenty first century, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc.) race series. Enhancements to the occupant restraint system include the implementation and advancement of head and neck restraints (HNR), minimum performance requirements for belts and seats and the introduction of energy-absorbing foam are a few highlights, among others. This paper summarizes three non-injury case studies of actual on-track incidents, including the acceleration pulses, principal direction of force, restraint systems used and driver anthropometry information. Also discussed are the NASCAR personal safety equipment requirements as well as frontal, oblique and side sled testing data of similar input acceleration magnitudes for the Hybrid III (H-III) fiftieth percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD).