Völkl, T., Muehlmeier, M., and Winner, H., "Extended Steady State Lap Time Simulation for Analyzing Transient Vehicle Behavior," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 6(1):283-292, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0806.
The extended steady state lap time simulation combines a quasi steady state approach with a transient vehicle model. The transient states are treated as distance dependent parameters during the calculation of the optimal lap by the quasi steady state method. The quasi steady state result is used afterwards to calculate a new dynamic behavior, which induces in turn a different quasi steady state solution. This iteration between the two parts is repeated until the dynamic states have settled. An implementation of the extended quasi steady state simulation is built up to determine the capabilities of the approach. In addition to pure steady state simulation abilities, the method is able to judge the influence of the transient or time variant vehicle states on lap time. Sensitivity studies are generated to analyze the influence of basic parameters like mass, but also the influence of parameters with transient interaction like vertical damping or tire temperature. The extended quasi steady state lap time simulation approach provides an accurate possibility to integrate dynamics into the quasi steady state approach.