Xu, B., Leffert, M., and Belanger, B., "Fuel Economy Impact of Grille Opening and Engine Cooling Fan Power on a Mid-Size Sedan," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0857, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0857.
This paper investigates changes in fuel economy of a mid-size sedan at various engine cooling fan power levels and front grille opening areas. A full vehicle model was built using MATLAB Simulink to calculate the fuel economy (MPG). The model utilized inputs from aerodynamic wind tunnel testing as well as FTP and MVEG dynamometer tests results. Simulation and testing was carried out at three front opening areas and three engine cooling fan power levels. The results provide a guideline for optimizing the front grille opening vs. engine cooling fan power combination at various driving conditions.