Han, X., Tjong, J., Wang, M., Reader, G. et al., "Renewable Ethanol Use for Enabling High Load Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0904, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0904.
As a renewable energy source, the ethanol fuel was employed with a diesel fuel in this study to improve the cylinder charge homogeneity for high load operations, targeting on ultra-low nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emissions. A light-duty diesel engine is configured to adapt intake port fuelling of the ethanol fuel while keeping all other original engine components intact. High load experiments are performed to investigate the combustion control and low emission enabling without sacrificing the high compression ratio (18.2:1). The intake boost, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection pressure are independently controlled, and thus their effects on combustion and emission characteristics of the high load operation are investigated individually. The low temperature combustion is accomplished at high engine load (16~17 bar IMEP) with regulation compatible NOx and soot emissions. The test results also indicate that use of renewable ethanol alleviates the dependence on intake boost, EGR and injection pressure for low temperature combustion.