Park, S., Jung, Y., and Bae, C., "Diesel Knock Visualization and Frequency Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion with a Narrow Injection Angle," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0906, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0906.
In this study, premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion was implemented using an injector that had a narrow injection angle of 70° and a moderately early injection timing of -40° crank angle after top dead center (CA ATDC). In-cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed direct imaging of the flame were performed in an optically accessible single-cylinder diesel engine. Frequency analysis of the acquired in-cylinder pressure data was carried out to obtain the frequency range of diesel knock. Meanwhile, image segmentation and a tracking algorithm based on YCbCr color space were implemented to determine the frequency range of diesel knock from the obtained high-speed image.The results show that the frequency of diesel knock was dominated by the range from 13 kHz to 15 kHz. Still, frequency with low power existed down until 7 kHz. The frequencies of the area movement were shown to be 13 kHz and, in some cases, 8.67 kHz. It was found that there is a direct relationship between the pressure ringing and the area movement.