Smith, P. and Cheng, W., "Assessing the Loss Mechanisms Associated with Engine Downsizing, Boosting and Compression Ratio Change," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0929, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0929.
The loss mechanisms associated with engine downsizing, boosting and compression ratio change are assessed. Of interest are the extents of friction loss, pumping loss, and crevice loss. The latter does not scale proportionally with engine size. These losses are deconstructed via a cycle simulation model which encompasses a friction model and a crevice loss model for engine displacement of 300 to 500 cc per cylinder. Boost pressure is adjusted to yield constant torque. The compression ratio is varied from 8 to 20. Under part load, moderate speed condition (1600 rpm; 13.4 Nm/cylinder brake torque), the pumping work reduces significantly with downsizing while the work loss associated with the crevice volume increases. At full load (1600 rpm; 43.6 Nm/cylinder brake torque), the pumping work is less significant. The crevice loss (normalized to the fuel energy) is essentially the same as in the part load case. The sensitivities of the respective loss terms to downsizing are reported.