Zhang, Q., Brace, C., Akehurst, S., Burke, R. et al., "Simulation Study of the Series Sequential Turbocharging for Engine Downsizing and Fuel Efficiency," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0935, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0935.
The series sequential turbocharging technology is recently gaining attention as the new round of engine downsizing and emission control becomes imperative for the engine manufacturers. The technology is able to provide combined benefits of transient performance, engine downsizing, fuel efficiency and emissions reduction with foreseeable problems of control, packaging and cost. The matching and characterization of the two interactive turbochargers is a challenging exercise. Two important questions are, how should the two machines be sized and what is the best strategy for the turbochargers across the speed range of the engine at full load. This paper addresses these two questions by comparing a variety of matching sizes and presenting an attempt to identify an optimal valve operating schedule in order to achieve the target limiting torque curve.