We characterize the cyclic behavior of an AM30 extruded magnesium alloy. The micromechanisms of cyclic damage were studied by means of strain controlled experiments in both the extruded and transverse directions. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the microstructure revealed that second phase particles were present in the Mg alloy that nucleated the cracks. However, crack initiation sites were observed to occur due to profuse twinning. Low cycle fatigue parameters were determined, and a microstructure-sensitive MultiStage Fatigue (MSF) model, which is able to capture mechanical and microstructure properties, was implemented to predict fatigue behavior and failure.