Daw, C., Gao, Z., Smith, D., Laclair, T. et al., "Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck," SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh. 6(1):161-182, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1033.
We compare the simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional heavy duty (HD) truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential benefit for HD hybrid vehicles during highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative braking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for a 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty due to a slightly increased exhaust backpressure.