Senecal, P., Pomraning, E., Richards, K., and Som, S., "An Investigation of Grid Convergence for Spray Simulations using an LES Turbulence Model," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1083, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1083.
A state-of-the-art spray modeling methodology, recently applied to RANS simulations, is presented for LES calculations. Key features of the methodology, such as Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), advanced liquid-gas momentum coupling, and improved distribution of the liquid phase, are described. The ability of this approach to use cell sizes much smaller than the nozzle diameter is demonstrated. Grid convergence of key parameters is verified for non-evaporating and evaporating spray cases using cell sizes down to 1/32 mm. It is shown that for global quantities such as spray penetration, comparing a single LES simulation to experimental data is reasonable, however for local quantities the average of many simulated injections is necessary. Grid settings are recommended that optimize the accuracy/runtime tradeoff for LES-based spray simulations.