Deligiannis, A., Anastasakos, A., Anastopoulos, G., Dodos, G. et al., "Effectiveness of Various Phenolic Compounds (Commercial and Non-Commercial) on Biodiesel Oxidation Stability," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1128, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1128.
This study investigates the effectiveness of seven phenolic compounds, including pyrogallol (PY), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (DTBHQ), 4-tert-Butylcatechol (TBC), 2,5-bis(dimethylaminomethyl) hydroquinone, 2,5-bis(piperidinomethyl) hydroquinone and 2,5-bis(morpholinomethyl) hydroquinone on the oxidation stability of sunflower and soybean oil methyl esters. The seven phenolic compounds were dissolved in the base fuels at the same concentration levels, i.e., 200, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 ppm. The oxidation stability measurements were carried out by employing a Rancimat accelerated oxidation unit according to EN 14214. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of the above mentioned compounds was also determined in a RSSOT apparatus (Rapid Small Scale Oxidation Test) according to ASTM D7545.Most of the antioxidants that were examined according to the Rancimat and RSSOT methods had a measurable positive impact on the oxidation stability in all concentrations of the additives.