Ryu, K., Zacharakis-Jutz, G., and Kong, S., "Effects of Fuel Compositions on Diesel Engine Performance Using Ammonia-DME Mixtures," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1133, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1133.
Various mixtures of ammonia (NH₃) and dimethyl ether (DME) were tested in a diesel engine to explore the feasibility of using ammonia as an alternative, non-carbon fuel to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The original diesel fuel injection system was replaced with a new system for injecting ammonia-DME mixtures into the cylinder directly. The injection pressure was maintained at approximately 206 bar for various fuel mixtures including 100% DME, 60%DME-40%NH₃, and 40%DME-60%NH₃ (by weight). As ammonia content was increased in the fuel mixture, the injection timing needed to be advanced to ensure successful engine operation. It was found that cycle-to-cycle variation increased significantly when 40%DME-60%NH₃ was used. In the meantime, combustion of 40%DME-60%NH₃ exhibited HCCI characteristics as the injection timing ranged from 90 to 340 before top-dead-center (BTDC). Emissions data show that soot emissions remained extremely low for the fuel mixtures tested. On the other hand, as ammonia concentration increased, CO and HC emissions increased due to the low combustion temperature of ammonia, and NOx emissions also increased due to the formation of fuel NOx. Exhaust ammonia emissions also increased as ammonia content increased in the fuel mixture.