Sonobe, O., Hashimoto, Y., Hiramoto, J., and Inazumi, T., "Deformation Mechanism of ERW Tubes in Newly Developed Bending Method “PRB”," SAE Int. J. Mater. Manf. 6(2):313-322, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1168.
For the newly developed tube bending method termed “PRB,” finite element analyses (FEA) with solid elements were carried out to clarify the tube deformation mechanism in comparison with that in conventional rotary draw bending. The following results were obtained. 1In the investigation of the strain and stress states both outside and inside the bend, it was found that plastic deformation in PRB was almost completed before the tube material entered the bend area. In rotary draw bending, plastic deformation developed in the bend area.2Regarding the effect of tube reduction in diameter by the pressure die in deformation of tubes, circumferential compressive deformation involving longitudinal tensile deformation is enhanced outside the bend. Protrusion of the bending die toward the tube facilitates longitudinal compressive deformation inside the bend.3In PRB, the tube material inside the bend tends to be compressed along the longitudinal direction in a large area as a result of the protrusion of the bending die toward the tube inside the bend. This eases circumferential compressive stress and reduces wrinkling, even though a mandrel and wiper are not used in PRB.4The stress in the thickness direction is not negligible inside the bend for a detailed investigation of deformation behavior.