Strecker, B. and Depcik, C., "Macroscopic Study of Projected Catalytic Converter Requirements," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1286, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1286.
Software packages including Argonne National Lab's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model and the EPA's Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulation (MOVES) model are useful in analyzing the emission profiles of light-duty vehicles. In particular, GREET performs a detailed life cycle fuel energy and emissions analysis, while MOVES focuses on energy and emissions during vehicle operation. This study uses MOVES2010b in the creation of emission trends in order to predict future emissions regulations and the subsequent aftertreatment device areas of improvement required to meet these standards. A second objective was to create four time sheet tables in order to update the base vehicle operation emission profiles used in GREET. The simulation results depict the balance between nitrous oxide and hydrocarbon emissions, the dependency upon climate effects, and areas for potential improvement given recent engine design trends.