Whelan, I., Timoney, D., Smith, W., and Samuel, S., "The Effect of a Three-Way Catalytic Converter on Particulate Matter from a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine During Cold-Start," SAE Int. J. Engines 6(2):1035-1045, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1305.
This work investigates the effect of a three-way catalytic converter and sampling dilution ratio on nano-scale exhaust particulate matter emissions from a gasoline direct-injection engine during cold-start and warm-up transients. Experimental results are presented from a four cylinder in-line, four stroke, wall-guided direct-injection, turbo-charged and inter-cooled 1.6 litre gasoline engine. A fast-response particulate spectrometer for exhaust nano-particle measurement up to 1000 nm was utilised. It was observed that the three-way catalytic converter had a significant effect on particle number density, reducing the total particle number by up to 65 % over the duration of the cold-start test. The greatest change in particle number density occurred for particles less than 23 nm diameter, with reductions of up to 95 % being observed, whilst the number density for particles above 50 nm diameter exhibited a significant increase. The exhaust temperature plays a significant role on the influence of the catalytic converter on the nano-scale particulate matter. It is evident that the dilution ratio of the exhaust sample has a distinct effect on the particulate matter number and size distribution, influencing the engine-out PM more significantly than the tailpipe-out PM during cold-start engine operation. The catalytic converter also has a considerable effect on the estimated total particle mass.