Jawad, B., Yee, K., Liu, L., and Arslan, S., "Better Vehicle Performance Through Improved Throttle Response," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1401, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1401.
Investigations were conducted on how to improve vehicle performance by improving throttle response. A method for improving throttle response was to reduce the rotating and reciprocating mass in the engine. Two engines, which only differed in the amount of rotating and reciprocating mass, were investigated. Based on tests on a chassis dynamometer, it was observed that there was an 18% faster throttle response for the engine possessing the lower amount of rotating and reciprocating mass.