Smart, J., Powell, W., and Schey, S., "Extended Range Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in the EV Project," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1441, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1441.
ECOtality North America, OnStar, and the Idaho National Laboratory have partnered to collect and analyze electronic data from Chevrolet Volts enrolled in The EV Project, which is a large-scale plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure demonstration being conducted in 21 metropolitan areas across the United States. This paper presents results of an early analysis of these data. The data set analyzed came from 923 privately owned vehicles, which logged over 4.7 million driving miles from October 2011 to October 2012. These data are used to identify the potential of electric vehicle (EV) mode driving, based on driver and charging behavior.Driving and charging behavior is quantified with metrics such as daily vehicle miles traveled, number of charging events performed per day, and distance driven between consecutive charging events. Drivers averaged 40.7 miles per day, with a median of 31.6 miles per day. Vehicles were charged 1.46 times per vehicle day driven on average, with a median of 1 charging event per day driven. This results in an average of 27.9 miles between consecutive charging events and a median distance of 19.8 miles between charging events. Underlying distributions for these metrics also are examined to find a wide variation in driving and charging behavior across vehicles and vehicle days.Overall, 81% of the vehicles averaged 40 miles or less between consecutive charging events. Assuming a fixed EV mode range of 35 miles, vehicles in this study had the potential to drive 73% of their miles in EV mode. These results show that Chevrolet Volt drivers participating in The EV Project found frequent opportunities to charge their vehicles, such that a high percentage of their driving was performed in EV mode. Also, drivers took advantage of their vehicle's extended range mode to meet their driving needs beyond the all-electric range of their vehicle.