Zaremba, A., Lechowicz, P., and Jennings, M., "Engine Control Unit Modeling with Engine Feature C Code for HEV Applications," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1451, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1451.
Engine control unit (ECU) modeling using engine feature C code is an increasingly important part of new vehicle analysis and development tools. The application areas of feature based ECU models are numerous: a) cold vehicle fuel economy (FE) prediction required for recently introduced 5-cycle certification; b) vehicle thermal modeling; c) evaporative (purge) systems design; d) model-in-the-loop/software-in-the-loop (MIL/SIL) vehicle control development and calibration. The modeling method presented in the paper embeds production C-code directly into Simulink at a feature level using an S-Function wrapper. A collection of features critical to accurate engine behavior prediction are compiled individually and integrated according to the newly developed Engine Control Model Architecture (ECMA). Custom MATLAB script based tools enable efficient model construction. Additionally, methods for full and partial engine calibration updates are available at S-Function build time and model run-time. The method is illustrated by an example of the 2013 Fusion Hybrid ECU model developed for 5-cycle fuel economy analysis and other control applications.