Skugor, B. and Deur, J., "Instantaneous Optimization-based Energy Management Control Strategy for Extended Range Electric Vehicle," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1460, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1460.
The paper proposes an energy management control strategy for a Extended Range Electric Vehicle comprising an internal combustion engine, two electrical machines, and three clutches. The control strategy smoothly combines a rule-based strategy, extended with a battery state-of-charge (SoC) controller, with an instantaneous optimization algorithm based on equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). In addition to engine on/off logic, the rule based controller includes rules which are extracted from the global dynamic programming-based off-line optimization results. The control strategy is verified by means of computer simulation for different operating modes and certification driving cycles, and the simulation results are compared with the dynamic programming optimization results which are considered as globally optimal.