Boehme, T., Held, F., Rollinger, C., Rabba, H. et al., "Application of an Optimal Control Problem to a Trip-Based Energy Management for Electric Vehicles," SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 2(1):115-126, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1465.
A trip-based energy management strategy for electric vehicles (EVs) is proposed. It can use deterministic routing information obtained from, nowadays, available navigation systems and determines stochastic descriptions of process uncertainties such as stop events as unpredictable disturbances. A dynamic programming algorithm is used to calculate the optimal control trajectories required to reach the target destination safely and to suggest the driver an optimal driving style to maximize the battery range. The algorithm is implemented on a rapid prototyping platform using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulations and experimental results obtained from an EV prototype car are presented.