Rask, E., Santini, D., and Lohse-Busch, H., "Analysis of Input Power, Energy Availability, and Efficiency during Deceleration for X-EV Vehicles," SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 2(2):350-361, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1473.
The recovery of braking energy through regenerative braking is a key enabler for the improved efficiency of Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Plug-in Hybrid Electric, and Battery Electric Vehicles (HEV, PHEV, BEV). However, this energy is often treated in a simplified fashion, frequently using an overall regeneration efficiency term, ξrg , which is then applied to the total available braking energy of a given drive-cycle.In addition to the ability to recapture braking energy typically lost during vehicle deceleration, hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles also allow for reduced or zero engine fueling during vehicle decelerations. While regenerative braking is often discussed as an enabler for improved fuel economy, reduced fueling is also an important component of a hybrid vehicle's ability to improve overall fuel economy. Much like energy captured though regenerative braking, engine fueling during deceleration is also often treated using an estimated deceleration fueling rate which is then applied to the total time of deceleration for a particular drive cycle.