Steffke, K., Inguva, S., Van Cleve, D., and Knockeart, J., "Accelerated Life Test Methodology for Li-Ion Batteries in Automotive Applications," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1548, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1548.
Determining Li-ion battery life through life modeling is an excellent tool in determining and estimating end-of-life performance. Achieving End-of-Life (EOL) can be challenging since it is difficult to achieve both cycle and calendar life during the same test without years of testing. The plan to correlate testing with the model included three (3) distinct temperature ranges, beginning with the four-Season temperature profile, an aggressive profile with temperatures in the 50 to 55°C range, and using a mid-temperature range (40-45°C) as a final comparison test. A high duty-cycle drive profile was used to cycle all of the batteries as quickly as possible to reach the one potential definition of EOL; significant increases in resistance or capacity fade.