Kim, Y., Kim, Y., Jun, S., Lee, K. et al., "Strategies for Particle Emissions Reduction from GDI Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1556, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1556.
In this study, present level of 2.0L GDI vehicle is measured and it is figured out how to reduce particle emissions against European emission limit(EURO 6) and US emissions standards(LEV 3) through engine test and vehicle test.A cause of PM and PN formation is divided into several reasons. This paper describes the optimization of engine control parameter and hardware change like injector type and injection target position like spray pattern optimization with minimizing side effect. If particle emission limit is getting more strengthen GPF(Gasoline Particle Filter) is a simple solution to meet particle emission limit. But engine performance decreases according to exhaust pressure increase and there is cost problem.This paper have shown that 60% level of euro6c PN limit is accomplished without a GPF at demonstrated vehicle.