Swanson, J., Kittelson, D., Giechaskiel, B., Bergmann, A. et al., "A Miniature Catalytic Stripper for Particles Less Than 23 Nanometers," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 6(2):542-551, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1570.
The European Emissions Stage 5b standard for diesel passenger cars regulates particulate matter to 0.0045 g/km and non-volatile part/km greater than 23 nm size to 6.0x10₁₁ as determined by the PMP procedure that uses a heated evaporation tube to remove semi-volatile material. Measurement artifacts associated with the evaporation tube technique prevents reliable extension of the method to a lower size range. Catalytic stripper (CS) technology removes possible sources of these artifacts by effectively removing all hydrocarbons and sulfuric acid in the gas phase in order to avoid any chemical reactions or re-nucleation that may cause measurement complications. The performance of a miniature CS was evaluated and experimental results showed solid particle penetration was 50% at 10.5 nm. The sulfate storage capacity integrated into the CS enabled it to chemically remove sulfuric acid vapor rather than rely on dilution to prevent nucleation. Sulfuric acid re-nucleation was not observed until the challenge concentration was higher than 10 mg/m₃. Additionally, the CS fully removed monodisperse tetracontane particles as large as 220 nm at a concentration of 10,000 part/cm₃. A prototype "CS VPR" was constructed using the miniature CS and preliminary measurements from a field study are reported.