Rathinam, B., Naithani, U., Delahaye, L., Ravet, F. et al., "Numerical Spray Modeling for Ultra Low Cost (ULC) Gasoline Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1606, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1606.
The main objective of this study is to determine the appropriate boundary conditions for the distribution of droplet sizes, speed of the fuel settling at the nozzle of the injector and droplet penetration by numerical simulation using STARCD for a 3-holes injector of ULC-GE. In this study, the Eulerian- Lagrangian approach has been used to model the multiphase domain. A new strategy has been adapted to model droplet initial conditions using the Rosin-Rammler distribution, which is determined by measurement of the Sauter Mean Diameter D₃₂ and the De Brouckere Mean Diameter D₄₃ by the MALVERN method. Further, these droplets undergo the phenomenon of atomization by secondary break-up method and evaporation in the Eulerian domain. The numerical model has been used to evaluate the effects of different initial condition of droplets by changing the discharge coefficient of the nozzle, and the initial droplet size distribution at the nozzle tip. The results of this study has been compared and analyzed for penetration length, droplet size distribution (at a distance of 75 mm from the tip of the nozzle) and visualization with the experimental results of specific injection mass flow rate of 5 mg/hole in 1.5 ms.