Steinberger, M. and Bird, N., "Ratcheting OWC in Torque Converters," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1770, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1770.
This paper reviews ratcheting one way clutches (OWC). OWC represent a significant cost in a transmission. Optimizing the OWC type helps reduce cost and increase fuel efficiency, and is therefore worth studying. Although the ratcheting OWC design is the primary focus of this paper, some background on roller and sprag type OWC is given. The strengths and weaknesses of ratcheting OWC are discussed. Potential OWC failure modes are reviewed to help engineers perform a thorough design analysis. Formulae and other details useful for the design are also reviewed.