Chai, T., Singh, R., and Dreyer, J., "Dynamic Stiffness of Hydraulic Bushing with Multiple Internal Configurations," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 6(2):1209-1216, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1924.
Fluid filled bushings are commonly used in vehicle suspension and sub-frame systems due to their spectrally-varying and amplitude-dependent properties. Since the literature on this topic is sparse, a controlled laboratory prototype bushing is first designed, constructed, and instrumented. This device provides different internal combination of long and short flow passages and flow restriction elements. Experiments with sinusoidal displacement excitations are conducted on the prototype, and dynamic stiffness spectra along with fluid chamber pressure responses are measured. The frequency-dependent properties of several commonly seen hydraulic bushing designs are experimentally studied and compared under two excitation amplitudes. Further, new linear time-invariant models with one long and one short flow passages (in parallel or series) are proposed along with the limiting cases. The analytical models are validated in frequency and time domains using transmitted force and chamber pressure measurements. The proposed formulation provides insights into various performance features.