Noll, S., Dreyer, J., and Singh, R., "Comparative Assessment of Multi-Axis Bushing Properties Using Resonant and Non-Resonant Methods," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 6(2):1217-1223, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1925.
Shaped elastomeric joints such as engine mounts or suspension bushings undergo broadband, multi-axis loading; however, in practice, the elastomeric joint properties are often measured at stepped single frequencies (non-resonant test method). This article helps provide insight into multi-axis properties with new benchmark experiments that are designed to permit direct comparison between system resonant and non-resonant identification methods of the dynamic stiffness matrices of elastomeric joints, including multi-axis (non-diagonal) terms. The joints are constructed with combinations of inclined elastomeric cylinders to control non-diagonal terms in the stiffness matrix. The resonant experiment consists of an elastic metal beam end-supported by elastomeric joints coupling the in-plane transverse and longitudinal beam motion. The dynamic stiffness and loss factors of the elastomeric cylinders are measured in a non-resonant commercial elastomer test machine in shear, compression, and inclined configurations and a coordinate transformation is used to estimate the kinematic non-diagonal stiffness terms. Strong agreement is found for both dynamic stiffness and loss factors between the resonant and non-resonant methods at small displacements.