Daimon, E., Nomoto, T., Inada, K., Ogawa, H. et al., "Chemical Effects of Titanate Compounds on the Thermal Reactions of Phenolic Resins in Friction Materials -Part 3," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2025, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2025.
Our study focuses on not only how the physical properties of pad matrix strength and porosity depend on the titanates' crystal structure and shape, but also on the chemical properties of the titanates themselves.As a result, it has been found that the reaction that occurs on the friction surface containing titanate and phenolic resin has an influence on the tribological performance of brakes. Our conclusion remains that titanates affect the thermal-reaction of phenolic resins  .This study analyzes just what materials are generated by the thermal reaction of the phenolic resin in detail by studying samples with or without Titanate.The results show that the phenomenon of the generation of the char, which has its roots in the decomposition of the phenolic resins, is different between the samples with titanate, and without titanate. Along with pyrolysis products such as phenol monomer and dimer, char is commonly generated during the decomposition of phenolic resins. The component of the char is amorphous carbon. The amorphous carbon is similar to coke, which is one of the raw materials of the pads.Our hypothesis is that the most important factor affecting friction property is the property of the friction products that are generated on the friction surface.Phenolic resin has a significant impact on the property of the friction products.Our conclusion is that titanates affect the thermal-reaction of the phenolic resin, which in turn changes the property of the friction products. As a result, friction property (e.g. stability of μ) may be changed.