Pueyo, A., "Efficient 3D Artificial Ice Shapes Simulations with 2D Ice Accretion Codes using a 3-Level Correction," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2136, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2136.
3D ice accretion codes have been available for a few decades but, depending on the specific application, their use may be cumbersome, time consuming and requiring a great deal of expertise in using the code. In particular, simulations of large 3D glaze ice accretions using multiple layers of ice is a very challenging and time consuming task.There are several reasons why 2D icing simulations tools are still widely used in the aircraft industry to produce realistic glaze ice shapes. 2D codes are very fast and robust, with a very short turn-around time. They produce adequate results in areas of the aircraft where 3D effects on airflow or droplets concentration can be neglected. Their use can be extended to other areas of the aircraft if relevant 3D effects can be taken into account.This paper proposes a simulation methodology that includes three levels of corrections to extend the use of 2D icing codes to most of the aircraft surfaces. The first correction addresses the well-known methodology to match the sectional angle of attack and with a novel approach for horizontal stabilizers. The second correction accounts for the impact of the leading edge sweep into the water collection efficiency. The methodology proposed by Dorsch and Brun in a normal plane to the leading edge, which is part of the SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice ARP5903 report, is reviewed in detail. Also, a new formulation in the streamwise plane is proposed and compared to Dorsch methodology. Finally an innovative methodology to account for 3D upstream aircraft components effects on local water distribution is presented. Examples of 3D ice shapes simulated with the proposed methodology are presented.