Bai, F., Guo, K., and Lu, D., "Tire Model for Turn Slip Properties," SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh. 6(2):353-361, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2371.
In this paper a tire model for describing tire turn slip properties is derived. The tread of the contact patch is divided into many massless elastic elements in both the length and width direction. Carcass deformation is expressed by the translation, bending and twisting function. A turn slip tire model is derived by analyzing the geometric relationships among the deformation of contact patch, tread and carcass. The model is validated by experimental results of parking maneuver. The model seems capable of generating transient and steady state forces and moments for turn slip, and showing varied trend of tire force according to different turn slip velocity. It could not only describe the tread deformation, but also analyze how the tread deformation affects the tire force and moment properties.